Trends & Themes

Trends & Themes

What is Covered in the 2023 Global Philanthropy Tracker (GPT)?

The GPT aims to address the lack of knowledge on the scope of cross-border giving in a world with an increasing need for philanthropy. It measures cross-border philanthropic flows and compares it to three additional externally tracked flows: official development assistance (ODA), remittances, and private capital investment. The 2023 GPT, the 11th edition of the index, provides updated estimates based on data from 2020 or the most recent year with available data.

Changes in philanthropic outflows and other cross-border resource flows between 2018 and 2020

  • The total amount of the four flows from the 47 countries measured in the report showed a slight decline from 2018 to 2020. When adjusted for inflation, the total amount fell from USD 859 billion to 841 billion, or by roughly 2 percent.
  • Among the four flows, remittances saw the largest increase. Remittances grew to USD 590 billion, a 19 percent increase compared to 2018. This strong support for remittances comes from their counter-cyclical nature as well as movements towards more digital means of sending money.
  • Private giving and ODA remained relatively stable, with private philanthropy showing only a slight decline of 0.5 percent and ODA showing a 1 percent drop.
  • Private capital investment experienced an almost 100 percent drop, falling from USD 112 billion to USD 0.4 billion. The global recession, depreciation of asset values, and reduced foreign direct investment (FDI) all contributed to this sharp downturn.

Philanthropic Outflows by Donor Countries’ Income Level in 2020

  • In 2020, the five countries in the low-income and lower-middle income groups donated a total of USD 42.3 million to other countries; the 10 upper-middle income countries contributed around USD 643.5 million; and the 32 high-income countries contributed about USD 69.6 billion in cross-border philanthropy.
  • One low-income country (Uganda) and four lower-middle income countries (India, Kenya, Nigeria, and Tanzania) had estimates on philanthropic outflows. Among these five countries, Nigeria had the largest philanthropic outflows (approximately USD 22 million). However, Kenya contributed the largest outflows as a share of GNI (0.006%), followed closely by Nigeria (0.005%).
  • Ten upper-middle income countries had available data on philanthropic outflows in 2020. Within this income group, Türkiye remained at the top with the highest dollar value of cross-border philanthropic outflows (USD 402 million) and the largest outflows as a share of GNI (0.06 %).
  • Thirty-two high-income countries had available data on the amount of philanthropic outflows. The United States had the largest contribution, both in absolute terms (USD 49 billion) and as a percentage of GNI (0.23%).